Disclaimer: The information in the article isn't intended to diagnose, treat or cure any known or unknown disease or illness.

How Does Alcohol Affect Blood Pressure?

Excessive alcohol consumption can have negative impacts on our health, especially for those with high blood pressure. However, by practicing moderation and seeking support when needed, we can reduce the risks and enjoy alcohol in a responsible way.

September 20, 2023

Alcohol is a ubiquitous substance that is widely consumed throughout the world. It is a central nervous system depressant that can have a range of effects on the body, including altering blood pressure.

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. In this article, we will explore the relationship between alcohol and blood pressure, and how excessive alcohol consumption can be detrimental to your health.

What is Blood Pressure?

In simple terms, blood pressure refers to the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as it flows through the body.

It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the top number) and diastolic pressure (the bottom number). A normal blood pressure reading is around 120/80 mmHg.

If your blood pressure readings consistently exceed this threshold, it could be a sign of high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. This condition can cause damage to the arteries and over time can lead to serious health problems like heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.

Common Symptoms of Blood Pressure

  • Headaches
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Chest pain
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Fatigue
  • Vision problems
  • Blood in urine or nosebleeds

Some common symptoms of high blood pressure include headaches, shortness of breath, dizziness, chest pain, and vision problems. However, many people with high blood pressure may not experience any noticeable symptoms at all. This is why it's important to have your blood pressure checked regularly by a healthcare professional.

What Causes High Blood Pressure?

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of high blood pressure, some of which are beyond our control. These include:


Family history of hypertension increases the risk of developing high blood pressure.


Blood pressure tends to increase with age, as the blood vessels become less elastic with time.


People of African descent or those with South Asian ancestry are at a higher risk for hypertension.

In addition to these factors, several lifestyle choices can also increase the risk for high blood pressure. These include:


Consuming a diet that is high in sodium and low in potassium, calcium, and magnesium can increase the risk of developing hypertension.

Physical inactivity

Lack of regular physical activity can lead to weight gain and contribute to elevated blood pressure readings.


Being overweight or obese can put extra strain on the heart and blood vessels, leading to high blood pressure.


Smoking cigarettes damages the blood vessels and increases the risk for hypertension.

Alcohol consumption

Excessive alcohol consumption can raise blood pressure levels.

While some of these risk factors cannot be changed, such as genetics, many others can be addressed through simple lifestyle changes like modifying your diet or increasing your physical activity levels.

Effects of Alcohol on Blood Pressure

Alcohol consumption can have both short-term and long-term effects on blood pressure. Here are some of the ways that alcohol can affect blood pressure:

Short-term Effects of Alcohol on Blood Pressure

  • Increases blood pressure: Consuming alcohol can cause a temporary increase in blood pressure levels, especially if consumed in large amounts.
  • Disrupts normal heart rhythm: Alcohol can interfere with the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat, leading to an irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.
  • Dehydrates the body: Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it can cause the body to lose fluids and become dehydrated. Dehydration can lead to a drop in blood pressure levels.
  • Interacts with blood pressure medications: Some medications used to treat high blood pressure may interact negatively with alcohol, leading to dangerous side effects.

Initially, alcohol causes blood vessels to relax and widen, leading to an increase in blood flow and a decrease in blood pressure. However, this effect is usually temporary and may be followed by a rebound increase in blood pressure that can last for several hours after drinking.

Long-term Effects of Alcohol on Blood Pressure

  • Chronic heavy drinking can lead to sustained high blood pressure levels.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption can also damage the heart and blood vessels, leading to a higher risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Alcohol can interfere with medications used to treat high blood pressure, reducing their effectiveness.

Excessive alcohol consumption over time can have the opposite effect and lead to high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. This is because long-term alcohol use can damage the blood vessels, making them less elastic and more resistant to blood flow. As a result, the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the vessels, which increases blood pressure.

Additionally, excessive alcohol consumption can cause weight gain, which is a risk factor for high blood pressure. It can also interfere with medications used to treat hypertension, making it more difficult to control.

While moderate drinking may have some health benefits, excessive alcohol consumption can lead to serious health problems beyond high blood pressure. For example, it can weaken the heart muscle and increase the risk of heart failure or stroke. It can also damage the liver, pancreas, and other organs.

The effects of alcohol on blood pressure can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, genetics, and overall health. Nevertheless, it's generally recommended that adults limit their alcohol intake to moderate levels: up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. If you have hypertension or are at risk of developing it, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about how much alcohol is safe for you.

What is Considered Excessive Alcohol Consumption?

The amount of alcohol that is considered excessive varies depending on a person's age, sex, and overall health. However, in general, excessive alcohol consumption is defined as:

  • For men, consuming more than four drinks per day or 14 drinks per week
  • For women, consuming more than three drinks per day or seven drinks per week

It's important to note that these are general guidelines and that some people may be more sensitive to the effects of alcohol on their blood pressure than others.

How to Reduce Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

If you're concerned about your blood pressure, there are several things you can do to reduce your risk of hypertension. These include:

  • Limiting your alcohol consumption: If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. This means no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.
  • Eating a healthy diet: A diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help lower blood pressure.
  • Exercising regularly: Regular physical activity can help lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension.
  • Managing stress: Stress can have a negative impact on blood pressure, so finding ways to manage stress, such as through meditation or yoga, can be helpful.
  • Quitting smoking: Smoking can increase blood pressure and damage blood vessels, so quitting smoking can help reduce the risk of hypertension.

Impact of Different Types of Alcoholic Beverages on Blood Pressure

While excessive consumption of any type of alcoholic beverage can raise blood pressure, some studies suggest that certain types of alcohol may have different effects on blood pressure levels. Here are some examples:

Red wine

Red wine contains antioxidants called polyphenols that may help protect the heart and reduce inflammation in the blood vessels. Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke compared to other types of alcohol.

Beer and liquor

Beer and liquor have been shown to have a more significant impact on blood pressure levels than wine. This may be due in part to the higher alcohol content in these beverages compared to wine.

White wine

While red wine is often touted for its health benefits, white wine may also have some positive effects on blood pressure. Some studies have suggested that moderate consumption of white wine can improve blood lipid profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.


Champagne is a type of sparkling wine that is often associated with celebrations. While it's not as well-studied as other types of wine, some research has suggested that moderate champagne consumption may have cardiovascular benefits, such as reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke.


Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented apple juice. While it's often marketed as a healthier alternative to beer, cider can still raise blood pressure if consumed in excess.

It's important to note that individual responses to different types of alcohol can vary based on factors like age, sex, genetics, and overall health. Nevertheless, it's recommended that all types of alcohol be consumed in moderation. If you have hypertension or are at risk of developing it, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about what level of alcohol consumption is safe for you.

Interaction Between Alcohol and Blood Pressure Medication

While blood pressure medication can be effective in managing hypertension, it's important to be aware of how alcohol can interact with these medications. Combining alcohol with blood pressure medication can have potentially dangerous side effects, including:

Increased risk of side effects

Alcohol can increase the side effects of many blood pressure medications, including dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting.

Reduced effectiveness

Alcohol can interfere with the ability of some blood pressure medications to lower blood pressure effectively.

Liver damage

Some types of blood pressure medication may cause liver damage when combined with excessive alcohol consumption.

It's important to talk to your healthcare provider about any medications you are taking and how they may interact with alcohol. In general, it is recommended that individuals who take blood pressure medication should limit their alcohol consumption or avoid it altogether. If you do choose to drink alcohol, make sure to do so in moderation and always follow your healthcare provider's recommendations.

Tips for Moderating Alcohol Consumption

If you choose to drink alcohol, it's important to do so in moderation. Here are some tips for moderating your alcohol consumption:

Alternate Alcoholic Drinks with Non-Alcoholic Ones

One way to reduce your overall alcohol intake is to alternate alcoholic beverages with non-alcoholic ones. For example, you might have a glass of water or a soft drink between each alcoholic beverage. This can help you stay hydrated and pace yourself throughout the night.

Set a Limit on the Number of Drinks Consumed per Night

Another way to moderate your alcohol consumption is to set a limit on the number of drinks you plan to consume per night. For example, you might decide ahead of time that you will only have two drinks over the course of an evening. Setting a limit can help you stay in control and avoid overindulging.

Avoid Drinking Games or Binge Drinking

Drinking games and binge drinking can lead to excessive alcohol consumption and dangerous levels of intoxication. It's important to avoid these types of activities and instead focus on enjoying the company of friends or family without relying on alcohol as the main source of entertainment.

Choose Lower Alcohol Content Beverages

Some types of alcoholic beverages have higher alcohol content than others. Choosing lower alcohol content beverages like wine or beer instead of hard liquor can help reduce your overall alcohol intake.

Remember, drinking in moderation means no more than one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. If you have hypertension or are at risk of developing it, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider about how much alcohol is safe for you.

Strategies for Managing Cravings for Alcohol

Cravings for alcohol can be a challenge to manage, but there are several strategies that can help. Here are some tips for managing alcohol cravings:

Seek Support from Friends or Family Members

Talking to friends or family members about your desire to cut back on alcohol consumption can provide much-needed support and encouragement. They may also be able to offer helpful tips and suggestions based on their own experiences.

Engage in Activities That Distract from Drinking Urges

Engaging in activities that distract from drinking urges can be an effective way to manage cravings. Some examples include exercise, meditation, reading, or spending time with loved ones.

Use Mindfulness Techniques

Mindfulness techniques, such as deep breathing exercises or visualization, can help you stay present in the moment and avoid giving in to drinking urges.

Keep Alcohol Out of the House

Keeping alcohol out of the house can make it easier to resist temptation when cravings arise. If you do have alcohol at home, consider storing it out of sight or in a locked cabinet.

Avoid Triggers

Identifying triggers that lead to drinking urges, such as certain social situations or emotions like stress or anxiety, can be helpful in avoiding them altogether.

By implementing these strategies and seeking support from loved ones, it's possible to successfully manage cravings for alcohol and reduce your overall intake.

If you or someone you know is struggling with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and high blood pressure, it's important to seek help. AUD can have serious consequences on your physical and mental health, including increased risk of heart disease, liver damage, and stroke. When combined with high blood pressure, the risks can be even greater.

Resources for Alcohol Use Disorder Support

Getting help for AUD may seem daunting, but it's an important step towards a healthier life. There are many resources available to those seeking support, including:

Counseling or therapy

Working with a mental health professional can provide valuable support in managing AUD and addressing any underlying issues that may contribute to excessive drinking.

Support groups

Joining a support group like those offered by SMART Recovery and the SheRecovers Foundation can provide a sense of community and accountability in recovery.

Medication-assisted treatment

Certain medications can help reduce cravings for alcohol and ease withdrawal symptoms during the recovery process.

Inpatient or outpatient treatment programs

Depending on the severity of AUD, some individuals may benefit from more intensive treatment programs that offer 24-hour care and support.

Remember, seeking help for AUD is a sign of strength, not weakness. It takes courage to acknowledge that there is a problem and take steps towards recovery. Getting help can not only improve your physical health but also lead to increased happiness and fulfillment in all areas of life.


Excessive alcohol consumption can have negative impacts on blood pressure, increasing the risk of hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. While moderation is key in consuming alcohol, some types of alcoholic beverages may have different effects on blood pressure levels than others.

Red wine contains antioxidants that protect the heart and reduce inflammation in the blood vessels while beer and liquor have a more significant impact on blood pressure levels due to their higher alcohol content. White wine has been shown to improve blood lipid profile and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, while champagne may have cardiovascular benefits like reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Cider can also raise blood pressure if consumed in excess.

Combining alcohol with blood pressure medication can have dangerous side effects such as increased risk of side effects, reduced effectiveness, and liver damage. Strategies for moderating alcohol consumption include alternating alcoholic drinks with non-alcoholic ones, setting a limit on the number of drinks consumed per night, avoiding drinking games or binge drinking, choosing lower alcohol content beverages, seeking support from friends or family members to manage cravings for alcohol through mindfulness techniques or engaging in activities that distract from drinking urges.


  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2004). NIAAA Council Approves Definition of Binge Drinking.
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (n.d.). Moderate & Binge Drinking.
  • Rimm EB et al., "Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: Meta-analysis of effects on lipids and haemostatic factors." BMJ 1999;319:1523-1528.
  • American Heart Association. (2020). Alcohol and Heart Health.
  • Mayo Clinic. (2021). High Blood Pressure (Hypertension).
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Drinking Levels Defined.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). High Blood Pressure.
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2021). Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help.
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2019). Substance Use Disorders.

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